Unveiling the Process: How Photo Etching Transforms Metal Manufacturing

March 2024
Photoresist applied

Photo etching—a.k.a. chemical etching or photochemical machining—is a subtractive metal fabrication process that uses controlled chemical reactions to remove metal selectively. This method has transformed the way industries approach the manufacture of complex, thin metal parts. The roots of modern photo etching go back to the 1960s, as a spin-off from the printed circuit board industry. It was developed as a method to etch metal plates with high precision without the physical stress and tool wear associated with mechanical processing.

The Basics of Photo Etching

The photo etching process begins with the metal being cleaned and laminated with a light-sensitive photoresist. A phototool with the desired component design is then applied to the metal, and the assembly is exposed to UV light. The light hardens the photoresist where it shines through, protecting these specific areas from the etching chemicals. The unexposed photoresist is developed away to reveal the metal, which is then etched with a chemical (usually ferric chloride) to dissolve the unprotected parts.

Among other benefits—which will be explored below—this method is noted for its ability to produce extremely precise designs while preserving the structural integrity of the metal.

Historically, traditional etching involved manual processes and was limited in its utility. With technological advancements, photo etching has evolved to incorporate sophisticated digital controls and more effective chemicals. This evolution has expanded its applications from simple decorative items to essential components used in high-tech industries. Let’s look into the ways that the photo etching revolution has made its mark in the field of metal manufacturing.

Photo Etching vs. Traditional Etching

When comparing photo etching to other techniques in metal manufacturing, several important differences become apparent. Traditiona methods, generally involve physical contact with the metal, which can lead to material stress and wear. By contrast, photo etching offers a non-contact, chemically based approach that maintains the original integrity of the metal while achieving high precision and complexity.

Methodological Differences

Traditional machining techniques often rely on the use of hard tools that physically remove material from the metal surface. This includes processes like milling, where a cutting tool makes direct contact with the metal, and engraving, which uses abrasion to shape the metal. These methods can be effective for certain applications but come with limitations, especially when intricate details or very fine patterns are required. Traditional processes are simply too crude to create these designs.

Photo etching, on the other hand, uses a completely different approach, as described previously. Because it involves the use of chemicals rather than mechanical force, this method allows for extremely precise control over which areas of the metal are removed, thereby enabling the creation of complex and detailed designs that would be difficult or impossible to achieve with mechanical methods.

Outcome Differences

The outcomes of photo etching significantly surpass those of traditional etching in several key areas:


The precision of the photomask and the controlled etching process enable designs that are consistently replicated, which is ideal for industries requiring uniformity in part fabrication. This can’t be so easily achieved with traditional processes that are prone to progressive wear of tooling.

Complexity Without Extra Expense

Unlike traditional machining, where complexity often increases cost due to longer machining times, photo etching allows for complex shapes and fine details without a significant increase in cost. The complexity of a part generally does not affect the etching time, so intricate designs are just as economical to produce as simpler ones.

Efficiency and Scalability 

Photo etching is highly efficient for high-volume production runs, as many parts can be treated simultaneously. Once the phototool is created, replicating the design is straightforward and cost-effective, making it suitable for large-scale manufacturing without the need to replace worn-out tooling.


The process can be quickly and easily modified by changing the photomask design, which is far less costly than altering mechanical tooling. As a result, manufacturers can experiment with ideas and generate a variety of design options rapidly, which is invaluable in fast-paced industries such as electronics.

When comparing photo etching with traditional etching methods, it is clear that photo etching in metal manufacturing offers superior outcomes for applications that demand high-quality parts.

Applications of Photo Etching in Different Industries

Today, photo etching is utilized across a wide spectrum of industries. Each sector benefits in unique ways from the specific capabilities of photo etching.

Aerospace Industry

In aerospace, the demand for lightweight yet durable components is essential, as extra weight can interfere with the performance of airborne vessels. Photo etching excels in this arena by producing parts that meet high standards of precision required and also maintain the integrity of high-performance materials like titanium and aerospace-grade aluminum.

Components such as satellite heat sinks, airframe brackets, and intricate gaskets are commonly manufactured using photo etching, ensuring optimal performance in the demanding conditions of aerospace environments.

Electronics Industry

The electronics industry benefits immensely from the high precision and rapid prototyping capabilities of photo etching. It is particularly valued for manufacturing circuit boards, RF shielding, heat sinks, and connector components.

The ability to quickly create updated designs and manufacturer components that can integrate into complex electronic assemblies makes photo etching extremely useful for this rapidly evolving industry.

Medical Devices

Photo etching is vital in the medical device sector due to its ability to create highly accurate, burr-free components that meet strict hygiene and biocompatibility standards. Examples include surgical instruments, implantable devices, and filters used in various medical applications.

It goes without saying that these kinds of parts need to be immaculately smooth and free of burrs to ensure patient safety, and photo chemical etching is unsurpassed in fabricating products of this nature. The process ensures that these components are produced with a high level of detail and cleanliness required for medical use.

Other Industries

Photo etching also plays a significant role in the automotive, energy, and telecommunications sectors. For instance, in the automotive industry, photo etched parts are used in fuel injection systems and electronic connectors which require high precision to ensure vehicle efficiency and safety. In renewable energy, photo etched components are found in solar panels and battery grids, where exacting component specifications are critical for maximizing energy capture and storage efficiency.

It can be fairly said that any industry that uses precisely crafted thin metal parts can benefit from photo chemical etching.

Contact UWE

If you’re looking to harness the precision and efficiency of photo etching in metal manufacturing, United Western Enterprises is here to provide state-of-the-art services. Our experienced team is ready to deliver high-quality, custom photo chemically etched metal parts that meet your exact specifications.

Contact us today to learn more about how we can assist in advancing your manufacturing capabilities with our cutting-edge photo etching solutions.

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